A profile of primary school students’ literacy through EMI in CLIL Contexts

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(1)  Sri Rachmajanti   
Universitas Negeri Malang

(2)  Mirjam Anugerahwati    
Universitas Negeri Malang

(3) * Frida Unsiah   
Universitas Brawijaya

(*) Corresponding Author


For several years, the competence of students in Indonesia has always been recorded as very low. In PISA, Indonesia ranks at the 3rd or 4th lowest position, especially in Reading, Mathematics, and Science. This condition has, of course, raised the concerns of educators in Indonesia, and some schools then decided to implement an international curriculum along with the 2013 Curriculum. With the international curriculum, students are required to have very good literacy, to comprehend the texts and questions they work on. This also entails teaching them with teaching strategies which, besides developing their language competence, also enhance their critical thinking skills. This paper reports some ways in which EMI and CLIL can develop primary school students‟ English proficiency, literacy, and critical thinking skills. Data were taken from some Primary Schools which implement the synergy of national and international standard curricula, particularly from the scores of the students on two tests. Focus of the learning is given to the students’ English proficiency and literacy. The total numbers are 248 students from 14 primary schools located in most cities in East Java and some in South Celebes. The results show that the program equips the student with higher proficiency, literacy, and critical thinking skills. This study implies that EMI in CLIL context can accommodate primary school students’ literacy learning.


  • ESL lessons in Primary schools implement the synergy of the National Curriculum and international framework do enhance students‟ literacy, proficiency, and critical thinking skills.

  • The implementation of CLIL and EMI in primary school evidently gives benefits to the students‟ language proficiency.

  • It is confidently stated that EMI, which is implemented in the CLIL program, particularly in the primary schools which implement the synergy of dual curriculum (the 2013 Curriculum and the international framework).


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Rachmajanti, S., Anugerahwati , M., & Unsiah, F. (2023). A profile of primary school students’ literacy through EMI in CLIL Contexts. JEES (Journal of English Educators Society), 8(2). https://doi.org/10.21070/jees.v8i2.1802
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Author Biographies

Sri Rachmajanti, Universitas Negeri Malang

Prof. Dr. Sri Rachmajanti, Dip. TESL., M.Pd. Sri Rachmajanti is a professor in ELT, earned a doctoral's degree in ELT from Universitas Negeri Malang and postgraduate diplomas in Victoria University of Wellington New Zealand and RELC Singapore. She was awarded to visiting scholars at the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA in 2010, and at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia in 2018. She has been assigned by the university to manage the lab schools since 2007.

Mirjam Anugerahwati , Universitas Negeri Malang

Dr. Mirjam Anugerahwati, M.A. is an Associate Professor at the Department of English, Universitas Negeri Malang, where she has been teaching since 1990. She earned her Master’s Degree from the University of Queensland, Australia, and her Doctoral Degree from Universitas Negeri Malang. Her main research interests are TEFL, Teacher Professional Development, CCU, and character building. She is actively involved in teacher training and workshops throughout Indonesia.  She has written modules for the Open University, published research articles in scientific journals, and presented papers in National and International conferences. Currently, she is the head of the CAIE Centre at Universitas Negeri Malang.

Frida Unsiah, Universitas Brawijaya

Dr. Frida Unsiah, M.Pd is a lecturer of Study Program of English Language Education at Faculty of Cultural Studies Universitas Brawijaya. She enrolled her Master and Doctorate Degrees in ELT at Universitas Negeri Malang. Her research interests are English Medium Instruction (EMI), Bilingualism, English for Specific Purposes (ESP), and Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL). She has been writing some articles related to her research interests and published in some accredited and indexed journals.


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