Compensation strategies in speaking activities for non-English department students: poor and competent speakers

Main Article Content

Syafryadin Syafryadin
Feny Martina
Salniwati Salniwati


This study investigated the compensation strategies which were used by competent and poor speakers to avoid communication gap in speaking activities. This study used descriptive quantitative desaign. The use of descriptive method because of this study was not searching about compararison or  making prediction, but only finding out about mostly strategies used either competent or poor speakers in developing their speaking activities to avoid communication gap. Descriptive research is also chosen because it explores and catches social situation particularly in the class wholisticly, widely and deeply. Data collection used an observation sheet and a questionnaire. Population of this study was 83 students categorized as competent and poor speakers of semester 4 at English Study Program in one of the universities in Kendari. The findings of this study showed that the strategy which dominant used by either competent speakers or poor speakers as their group tendencies that was selecting the topic with the same overall average score of 4.0; competent speakers mostly used selecting the topic with the overall average of 4.0, adjusting or approximating the message with the overall average of 3.6 and using mime or gesture with the overall average of 3.5; poor speakers also mostly used selecting the topic with the overall average of 4.0 and coining word of 3.5. Competent speakers much more used compensation strategies than poor speakers. Thus, its major implication for pedagogy is that compensation strategies are extremely useful as guidance to avoid communication gap in speaking activities


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Syafryadin, S., Martina, F., & Salniwati, S. (2020). Compensation strategies in speaking activities for non-English department students: poor and competent speakers. JEES (Journal of English Educators Society), 5(2), 109-116.
Author Biographies

Syafryadin Syafryadin, English Education Postgraduate Program of Universitas Bengkulu

He is a lecturer in the English Education Postgraduate Program of Universitas Bengkulu. His research interests are Speaking, English language teaching, ICT in ELT, Pragmatics and Lingustics. He has published several papers in national and international journal. 

Feny Martina, Tadris Bahasa Inggris, IAIN Bengkulu

She is a lecturer in Tadris Bahasa Inggris, IAIN Bengkulu. Her  research interests are English language teaching. She has published several papers in National and International Journal.

Salniwati Salniwati, Cultural Studies, Universitas Halu Oleo

She is a lecturer in Halu Oleo University. Her research interests are Cultural studies and English language teaching. She has published several papers in National and International Journal


Blazquez, Andrea Bettian. (2007). A Case study: What learning strategies does a shy adult learner apply?Universidad NacionaldelComahue, Patagonia, Argentina. Retrieved on April 12th from

Dong, Yang & Fang, Gai. (2010). Chinese learners’ communication strategies research: A case study at Shandong Jiaotong University. Retrieved on April 12th

Gani, Sofyan A, et al. (2015).Students’ Learning Strategies for Developing Speaking Ability.Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, INDONESIA. STUDIES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND EDUCATION, Volume 2, Number 1.

Graham, Suzanne. (1997). Effective Language Learning : Positive Strategies for Advanced Level Language Learning Modern Languages in Practice.Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Gharbavi, A. &Mousavi, S. A. (2012). Do language proficiency levels correspond to language learning strategy adoption?. English Language Teaching, 5(7), 110-122.

Ghenaati, Z., & Bemani Naeini, M. (2019). Interrelationships of Emotional Intelligence tith the Awareness of Request and Apology Strategies in a EFL Setting. Indonesia Journal of Applied Linguistics. Vol. 9 No. 1. pp. 148-156. Doi: 10.17509/ijal.v9i1.14486.

Griffiths, C. (2004). Language learning strategies: Theory and research. Retrieved on June 6th from

Hanifa, Rizaldy,et al. (2016). Speaking Efforts: Strategies From Students With Poor Speaking Performance. Proceedings of the First Reciprocal Graduate Research Symposium between University Pendidikan Sultan Idris and Syiah Kuala University, February 26-28, 2016, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia.

Harmer, Jeremy. (2007). How to teach English. England: Longman Press.

Humaeri, I. (2003). Learning strategies in speaking English of male and female from STAIN Kendari. State University of Unhalu: Unpublished thesis.

Hussain, S. (2017). Teaching Speaking Skills in Communication Classroom.International Journal of Media, Journalism and Mass Communications (IJMJMC).Volume 3, Issue 3, 2017, Pp 14-21.

Karbalaei, A., & Negin, T. (2014). Compensation Strategies: Tracking Movement in EFL Learners’ Speaking Skills. Gist Education and Learning Research Journal. No. 9, pp. 88-102.

Kronfeld, A., & Searle, J. Studies in Natural Language Processing (Reference and Computation : An essay in Applied Philosophy of Language). Cambridge, New York: Cimbridge University Press.

Kumari, AV. (2014). Methods of Teaching English. Guntur: New Era Publications.

Malfinas.(2008). A Study of Multiple Intelligence and English Achievement. State University of Unhalu: Unpublished thesis.

Mistar, J, et al. (2014).Strategies of Learning Speaking Skill by Senior High School EFL Learners in Indonesia.The Asian EFL Journal Press. p 65-74.

Muslatif, Y. (2006). Learning Strategies of Successful Foreign Language Learners of English Study Program FKIP Haluoleo University.Kendari: Unpublished thesis

Ononye, C. F., & Nwachukwa, N. (2019). Metalinguistic Elevators and Pragmatic Strategies in Selected Hate-Inducing Speeches in Nigeria. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics. Vol. 9 No.1. pp. 48-57. Doi:10.17509/ijal.v9i1.13602.

Oxford, Rebecca L. (1990). Language learning strategies. Massachusetts: Heinle and Heinle Publisher.

Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House.

O‟Malley, J. M. &Chamot, A. U. (1990).Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Prabawa, Wawa Puja.(2016, June). Speaking Strategies Used by Indonesian Tertiary Students. ENGLISH REVIEW: Journal of English Education. Vol. 4, Issue 2, Pp. 231-244.

Rasiban, L.M., Sudana, D., & Sutedi, D. (2019). Indonesian students’ perceptions of mnemonic strategies to recognize Japananese kanji characters. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8, 697-702. doi: 10.17509/ijal.v8i3.15256.

Razmjoo., S. A &Ardekani , S. Ghasemi. (2011). A Model of Speaking Strategies for EFL Learners. The Journal of Teaching Language Skills (JTLS) 3(3), Fall 2011, Ser. 64/4 (Previously Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities).

Syafryadin., Haryani., Salniwati., Putry, A. (2019). Digital Storytelling Implementation for Enhancing Students’ Speaking Ability in Various Text Genres. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE). 8(4). 3147-3151

Walidin, W., Saifullah., & Tabrani. ZA. (2015). Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif & Grounded Theory. Aceh, Indonesia: FTK- Ar Raniry Press.

Zare, Pezhman. (2012) Language Learning Strategies Among EFL/ESL Learners: A Review of Literature. .International Journal of Humanities and Social Science.Vol. 2 No. 5 pp. 162-169.